Like those who wear veils outside for religious reasons, Dr Munns says these people should have their vitamin D levels checked annually and consider taking a daily vitamin supplement.
"Although simple vitamin D deficiency is often asymptomatic, adults may present with bone pain, myalgia, myopathy, increased risk of falls, osteoporosis and hip fractures," Dr Munns writes in the latest edition of the Medical Journal of Australia.
"Children may present with hypoglycaemic seizures, bowed limbs, fractures and motor delay."
Dr Munns says mothers who are vitamin D deficient can pass this on to their children.
These women should have their vitamin D levels checked in the early phase of pregnancy, he says, while breastfed infants should be given vitamin D supplements until they are 12 months old.